|Information courtesy of the National Climate Data Center|
|Kodiak Island is located on the western side of the Gulf of Alaska, 90 miles southwest of the Kenai Peninsula. Oriented northeast-southwest, the island lies 25 miles southeast of the Alaska Peninsula, separated from it by the Shelikof Strait. Afognak Island lies northeast of Kodiak, across Kupreanof Strait, which averages less than half a mile in width. The two islands are generally considered to be a single landmass, approximately 145 miles long by 50 miles wide. The terrain is rugged, with the mountains averaging from 2,000 to 4,000 feet in height. The highest mountains on Kodiak extend to roughly 5,000 feet. The island has many lakes, ponds, interconnecting waterways, and drainage streams. The irregular shoreline is indented by numerous bays, many of which are deep and narrow.
The National Weather Service Office is located on U. S. Coast Guard Base Kodiak, adjacent to Womens Bay, a small U shaped bay extending westward from the main body of Chiniak Bay.
Kodiak has primarily a marine climate which is exemplified by the limited daily and annual temperature ranges. During the summer, the mean air temperature closely approximates the mean sea surface temperature, rising slightly above it during August but falling below again in September. In winter, the mean maximum air temperature more closely resembles the mean sea surface temperature curve. The absolute temperature range is nearly 100 degrees. Summer maximum temperatures will vary 10 to 20 degrees, depending on whether the northwest gradient is strong enough to maintain a flow of air from over the island, or whether it is weak enough that the sea breeze predominates. The highest daily maximum temperatures occur with northwest winds in summer. Precipitation is normally abundant throughout the year. All months have a wide variation in the amount of precipitation. A very high percentage of the precipitation falls during northeast to southeast winds. Small amounts of snow may fall as late as May or as early as September with good ground cover anticipated in November. Precipitation measurement is often difficult due to strong, gusty surface winds which frequently accompany precipitation. Drifting and blowing snow occasionally close the field for periods of up to 24 hours.
Although the prevailing wind direction is northwesterly every month except May, June, and July, and the average speed is about 10 knots, these data may be misleading because of the extreme variability in both direction and speed. Maximum gusts of over 90 knots has been recorded. Coast Guard Cutters docked in Womens Bay have reported williwaw winds off Old Womens Mountain in excess of 120 knots. Gusts of over 50 knots have occurred during each month of the year, but are most likely to occur in the winter months